This difference which is called the reservoir age is caused both by the delay in exchange rates between atmospheric CO and oceanic bicarbonate, and the dilution effect caused by mixing surface waters with upwelling deep waters which are very old.
The INTCAL98 calibration curve thus constructed has been accepted by international consent (see Stuiver et al., 1998).
Two other U-Th dates provide a tentative extension to the INTCAL98 curve which has been used in this report to provide a calibration curve back to about 40k years BP.
Carbon 14 is used for this example:, which was put out by Dr. is presently only 1/3 of the way to an equilibrium value which will be reached in 30,000 years. Knowing how faulty creationist "facts" can be, let's do a little research of our own.
This nullifies the carbon-14 method as well as demonstrating that the earth is less than 10,000 years old. One suspects that the scientific world would not be using the carbon-14 method if it were so obviously flawed.
This method can be used to radiocarbon date one milligram of carbon or less and has the added advantage that the small sample size permits more selective sampling.