Vindolanda and the dating of roman footwear


) was a valued craftsman in the days of the Roman Empire, and the Romans contributed the entire-foot-encasing shoe to the Mediterranean world.Archaeological studies indicate that the Romans brought the shoe-making technology of vegetal tanning to Northwestern Europe.Tanning can be accomplished by the treatment of animal skins with oils or fats or by smoking, but none of those methods result in permanent and water-resistant leather.

Vindolanda: The sheer variety of archaeological finds at Vindolanda is astonishing e.g.

worked jet decorations, pieces of textiles, wigs of moss (anti insect headpiece?

The crew of a grain ship sunk in the Rhine River about 210 CE each owned one closed pair and one pair of sandals.

, impressive dress boots with a feline head that came nearly to the knees.

One of the hills above, Barcombe Hill, still bears evidence of stone quarrying for the Roman fort's construction 2000 years ago.